How does a fiber fusion splicer work?

How does a fiber fusion splicer work?

  • 2022-07-15

Fiber Optic Fusion Splicers and How They Work

What is a fiber optic fusion splicer?

A fiber optic fusion splicer is a device that uses an electric arc to melt two optical fibers together at their end faces, to be a single long fiber. The resulting joint joins the two glass fibers end to end permanently, so that optical light signals can pass from one fiber into the other with very low loss.


The optical fiber fusion splicer is mainly composed of fusion splicer motors, key control panel, windproof cover, heating tank, high-definition display screen, handle and other parts.

Classification of optical fiber fusion splicers:

Apart to the ordinary optical fiber fusion splicer, there are also a type of hand-held optical fiber fusion splicer for the convenience of construction, as well as ribbon optical fiber fusion splicer, large diameter fiber fusion splicer, etc.

The working theory of optical fiber fusion splicer:

Before optical fibers can be successfully spliced, they need to be carefully stripped of their outer jackets and coating, completely cleaned, and then precisely cleaved to form smooth end faces. Once all of these have been completed, each fiber should be placed into a holder in the splicer.

Alignment: Using small, precise motors, the fusion splicer makes slightly adjustments to the fibers’ positions until they’re properly aligned.

Discharge: The two electrodes release high voltage instantaneously, to penetrate the air. After penetrating the air, there will be an instantaneous arc. The arc will generate high temperature and melt the end faces of the two optical fibers that have been aligned. Since the optical fibers are made of silica , it is easy to reach a molten state, and then the two fibers are pushed forward slightly, so the two fibers are stuck together. The melted fiber tips are then joined together, forming the final fusion splice.

Test: Estimated splice-loss tests are then performed, with most fiber fusion splices showing a typical optical loss of 0.1 dB or less.

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